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There are numerous natural caves among the limestone rocks of Syria, many of which have been artificially enlarged for various purposes.
The first notice of a cave mentioned in the Bible occurs in the history of Lot (Genesis 19:30).
The next we read of is the cave of Machpelah, which Abraham purchased from the sons of Heth (Genesis 25:9-10). It was the burial place of Sarah and of Abraham himself, also of Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and Jacob (Genesis 49:31; 50:13). (also see: Ishmael)
The cave of Makkedah—into which the five Amorite kings retired after their defeat by Joshua (10:16, 27).
The cave of Adullam—an immense natural cavern, where David hid himself from Saul (1 Samuel 22:1-2).
The cave of Engedi—now called 'Ain Jidy, i.e., the “Fountain of the Kid”, where David cut off the skirt of Saul’s robe (24:4). Here he also found a shelter for himself and his followers to the number of 600 (23:29; 24:1).
“On all sides the country is full of caverns which might serve as lurking-places for David and his men…”
The cave in which Obadiah hid the prophets (1 Kings 18:4) was probably in the north, but it cannot be identified.
The cave of Elijah (1 Kings 19:9), and the “cleft” of Moses on Horeb (Exodus 33:22), cannot be determined.
In the time of Gideon the Israelites took refuge from the Midianites in dens and caves, such as abounded in the mountain regions of Manasseh (Judges 6:2).
Caves were frequently used as dwelling-places (Numbers 24:21; Song of Songs 2:14; Jeremiah 49:16; Obad. 1:3). “The excavations at Deir Dubban, on the south side of the wady leading to Santa Hanneh, are probably the dwellings of the Horites,” the ancient inhabitants of Idumea proper.
The pits or cavities in rocks were also sometimes used as prisons (Isaiah 24:22; 51:14; Zechariah 9:11).
Those which had niches in their sides were occupied as burying-places (Ezek. 32:23; John 11:38).