1. Hebrew: rosh (Hos. 10:4; rendered “gall” in Deuteronomy 29:18; 32:32; Psalm 69:21; Jeremiah 9:15; 23:15; “poison,” Job 20:16; “venom,” Deuteronomy 32:33). “Rosh is the name of some poisonous plant which grows quickly and luxuriantly; of a bitter taste, and therefore coupled with wormwood (Deuteronomy 29:18; Lam. 3:19). Hence it would seem to be not the hemlock cicuta, nor the colocynth or wild gourd, nor lolium darnel, but the poppy so called from its heads” (Gesenius, Lexicon).

  2. Hebrew: la'anah, generally rendered “wormwood”, Deuteronomy 29:18, Text 17; Proverbs 5:4; Jeremiah 9:15; 23:15. Once it is rendered “hemlock” (Amos 6:12; Revised King James Version, “wormwood”). This Hebrew word is from a root meaning “to curse,” hence the accursed.

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