1. Chaldee: attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at the top of which materials were cast in (Dan. 3:22, 23; compare Jeremiah 29:22). This furnace would be in constant requisition, for the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia.

  2. Hebrew: kibshan, a smelting furnace (Genesis 19:28), also a lime-kiln (Isaiah 33:12; Amos 2:1).

  3. Hebrew: kur, a refining furnace (Proverbs 17:3; 27:21; Ezek. 22:18).

  4. Hebrew: alil, a crucible; only used in Psalm 12:6.

  5. Hebrew: tannur, oven for baking bread (Genesis 15:17; Isaiah 31:9; Neh. 3:11). It was a large pot, narrowing towards the top. When it was heated by a fire made within, the dough was spread over the heated surface, and thus was baked. “A smoking furnace and a burning lamp” (Genesis 15:17), the symbol of the presence of the Almighty, passed between the divided pieces of Abraham’s sacrifice in ratification of the covenant God made with him. (See OVEN.)

  6. Greek: kamnos, a furnace, kiln, or oven (Matthew 13:42, 50; Rev. 1:15; 9:2).

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