the creatures employed in the third plague sent upon Egypt (Exodus 8:16-18)
They were miraculously produced from the dust of the land.
“All the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. …so there were lice upon man, and upon beast.” (Exodus 8:17-18)
“The entomologists Kirby and Spence place these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied parasitic pests.”
The plague of lice is also referred to in Psalm 105:31.
Some have supposed that the word denotes not lice properly, but gnats. Others, with greater probability, take it to mean the “tick” which is much larger than lice.