There are three Hebrew words used to denote the rains of different seasons:
Melqosh, the “latter rain” (Proverbs 16:15)
The “early” or “former” rains commence in autumn in the latter part of October or beginning of November (Deuteronomy 11:14; Joel 2:23; compare Jeremiah 3:3), and continue to fall heavily for two months. Then the heavy “winter rains” fall from the middle of December to March. There is no prolonged fair weather in Land of Israel between October and March.
The “latter” or spring rains fall in March and April, and serve to swell the grain then coming to maturity (Deuteronomy 11:14; Hos. 6:3). After this there is ordinarily no rain, the sky being bright and cloudless till October or November.
Rain is mentioned many times in the Bible.
rain and thunder used to get people’s attention (I Samuel 12:18)
rain withheld as judgment (Zechariah 14:17)
rain withheld and given (I Kings 16:30-18:45)
rain given and withheld from certain cities (Amos 4:7)
rain as a reward for obedience (Deuteronomy 11:13-15)
bad weather punishment, good weather reward (I Kings 8:35-36)
dry weather (Hosea 13:15)
drought punishment (Deuteronomy 28:24)
drought and famine (II Samuel 21:1)