This title was assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar.

In the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as sovereigns of Judea without their accompanying distinctive proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7).

The Jews paid tribute to Caesar (Matthew 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him (Acts 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1), Tiberius (Luke 3:1; 20:22), Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (Acts 25:8; Philippians 4:22).