a patriarch who resided in the land of Uz
While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for 140 years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (James 5:11). His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.
Job evidently lived about the time of Abraham.
Except for the first eleven chapters of Genesis, which almost certainly were originally written by Adam, Noah, the sons of Noah, and Terah, then eventually edited by Moses [see Genesis], the book of Job is probably the oldest book in the Bible. It contains more references to creation, the Flood and other primeval events than any book of the Bible except Genesis, and provides more insight into the age-long conflict between God and Satan than almost any other book. Remarkably, it also seems to contain more modern scientific insights than any other book of the Bible.
Uniform Jewish tradition ascribed the book of Job to Moses and also accepted it as part of the true canon of Scripture. This ascription seems quite reasonable if Moses is regarded as the editor and original sponsor of Job's book rather than its author. Undoubtedly, Job himself was the original author (Job 19:23,24), writing down his memoirs, so to speak, after his restoration to health and prosperity.
Moses most likely came into possession of Job's record during his forty-year exile from Egypt in the land of Midian (not far from Job's own homeland in Uz), and quickly recognized its great importance, perhaps editing it slightly for the benefit of his own contemporaries. It was all probably similar to how he compiled and organized the primeval records from which he has also given us the book of Genesis.