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Hebrew: אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם —transliteration: Aram Naharayim or Aram-Naharaim —meaning: Aram of (the) two rivers / This is the name for the region used in the Old Testament.

Greek: Μεσοποταμία —transliteration: Mesopotamia —meaning: the country between the two rivers / This is the name used in the New Testament.

Hebrew: Aram-Naharaim; i.e., “Syria of the two rivers”

Mesopotamia is the name given by the Greeks and Romans to the region between the Euphrates river and the Tigris river (Genesis 24:10; Deuteronomy 23:4; Judges 3:8; Judg. 3:10). The Hebrews called it Aram Naharayim.

In the Old Testament, it is also mentioned under the name “Padan-aram;” i.e., the plain of Aram, or Syria (Genesis 25:20).

The northern portion of this fertile plateau was the original home of the ancestors of the Hebrews (Genesis 11; Acts 7:2).

From this region Isaac obtained his wife Rebecca (>Genesis 24:10; 24:15), and here also Jacob lived for some time (Gen. 28:2-7) and obtained his wives, and here most of his sons were born (Gen. 35:26; 46:15).

In ancient times, the petty, independent tribes of this region, each under its own prince, were warlike, and used chariots in battle. They maintained their independence till after the time of King David, when they fell under the dominion of Assyria, and were absorbed into the empire (2 Kings 19:13).

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Article Version: July 16, 2021