Hebrew: homer), cement of lime and sand (Genesis 11:3; Exodus 1:14); also potter's clay (Isaiah 41:25; Nahum 3:14)

Also Hebrew: 'aphar, usually rendered “dust”

clay or mud used for cement in building (Leviticus 14:42, 45)

Mortar for pulverizing (Proverbs 27:22) grain or other substances by means of a pestle instead of a mill. Mortars were used in the wilderness for pounding the manna (Numbers 11:8). It is commonly used in Israel at the present day to pound wheat, from which the Arabs make a favorite dish called kibby.