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also known as: Asherah, Ashtoreth, Ashtaroth, Ishtar, Astarte, Ashtoret, Ashtarot, Astartu, Uni-Astre, Ashtart, Athtart, “the queen of heaven” (Jeremiah 44:25)

This is the Moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male deity (Judges 10:6; 1 Samuel 7:4; 12:10).

These names often occur in the plural (Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either different statues or different modifications of the deities. This deity is spoken of as “Ashtoreth of the Zidonians.”

She was the Ishtar of the Accadians and the Astarte of the Greeks (Jeremiah 44:17; 1 Kings 11:5, 33; 2 Kings 23:13).

Under the name of Ishtar, she was one of the great deities of the Assyrians. The Phoenicians called her Astarte.

Idolaters called her the “queen of heaven” (Jeremiah 44:25).


There was a temple of this goddess among the Philistines in the time of King Saul (1 Samuel 31:10).

King Solomon

Solomon introduced the worship of this idol (1 Kings 11:33). Jezebel’s 400 priests were probably employed in its service (1 Kings 18:19).

King Josiah

And the king [Josiah] defiled the high places that were opposite Jerusalem, which were on the right of the mount of destruction which Solomon the king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and for Milcom the abomination of the sons of Ammon. — 2 Kings 23:13 NASB

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Article Version: July 13, 2021