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Hebrew: יָם הַמֶּלַח
The name “Dead Sea” does not appear in Scripture. This name was given by Greek writers of the 2nd century to that inland sea called in Scripture the “Salt Sea” (Genesis 14:3; Numbers 34:12), the “sea of the plain” (Deuteronomy 3:17), the “east sea” (Ezek. 47:18; Joel 2:20), and simply “the sea” (Ezek. 47:8)
Biblical people associated with this area
In ancient times, this lake used to be much bigger and much less salty. Today, its surface has dropped to 1,407 feet below the surface of the Mediterranean Sea. Its depth is 997 feet (304 meters), although this varies.
From various phenomena that have been observed, its bottom appears to be still subsiding. It is about 42 miles long (304 meters), and, at the widest point, is 11 miles wide (18 kilometers).
It has no outlet, the great heat of that region causes such rapid evaporation that before the State of Israel, its average depth, notwithstanding the rivers that ran into it (see JORDAN), was maintained with little variation. Before modern Israeli management of the Jordan, this river alone discharged into it no less than 6-million tons of water every 24 hours.
The waters were then about 1,400 feet above the present level of the Dead Sea, or slightly above that of the Mediterranean, and at that time were much less salty. Since the 1950s, when the State of Israel began conserving water for its people and agriculture by managing the rivers, the level of the Dead Sea has dropped more than 131 feet (40 meters).
Concentrated salts and other minerals
The waters of the Dead Sea now contain 33.7% percent mineral salts, 9 times as much as in ordinary seawater (approximately 3.5%); thus the water is unusually buoyant, with a density of 1.24 kg/liter. Chloride of magnesium is most abundant; next to that chloride of sodium (common salt). The salt of the Dead Sea does not taste like table salt; it is bitter. However, these salts and minerals are very useful in treating skin diseases, are used in cosmetics and various health and pain relief aids. The lake also continually emits pieces of floating black asphalt (bitumen), sometimes in large masses after earthquakes.
Today, virtually nothing living can exist in this sea, except for tiny amounts of some types of bacteria, microbial fungi, and a single type of algae.
A late 19th century book reported…
Article Version: April 23, 2020