ChristianAnswers.Net WebBible Encyclopedia

Versions of the Bible

translations of the Holy Scriptures

The word “version” is not found in the Bible, but this encyclopedia frequently references various ancient and modern versions of the Bible.

Editor’s Note: This article is not yet completed; it is a work in progress.

English versions

  • 1388 A.D.: Wycliffe’s Bible (Wyckliffe)—The history of the English versions begins properly with Wycliffe; it is to him that the honor belongs of having first translated the whole Bible into English. This version was made from the Vulgate, and renders Genesis 3:15 after that Version, “She shall trede thy head.”

  • 1525-1534: Tyndale Bible—William Tyndale’s translation

    He was martyred by the Roman Catholic Church, who banned his work and burned copies of his translations.

  • 1535-1553: Coverdale Bible—published by Miles Coverdale

  • 1537: Matthew Bible or Matthew’s Version—published by Hebrew and Syriac scholar John Rogers, using the pen name “Thomas Matthew,” to avoid execution

    He was the first martyr under the reign of Catholic Queen Mary I of England—“Bloody Mary.”

    This was properly the first King James Version, Henry the 8th having ordered a copy of it to be received by every church. This took place in less than a year after Bible scholar William Tyndale was martyred for the crime of translating the Scriptures.

    This version was translated from the Textus Receptus.

  • 1539: Taverner’s Bible—published by Richard Taverner as a minor revision of Matthew’s Bible

  • 1539: The Great Bible—so called because of its large size

    It was also called Cranmer’s Bible.

    In the strict sense, the “Great Bible” is “the only King James Version; for the Bishops’ Bible and the King James Version never had the formal sanction of royal authority.”

    This version was translated from the Textus Receptus.

  • 1560: Geneva Bible

    This version was translated from the Textus Receptus.

    All of the Old Testament was translated directly from Hebrew. This Bible was the primary version used by John Knox (Protestant Reformation leader, theologian and minister), John Bunyan (Pilgrim’s Progress), William Shakespeare and most English-speaking Protestants in the 1500s.

  • 1568: Bishops’ Bible—produced under the authority of the Church of England and later revised in 1572 and 1602

    This translation was done by Archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker, and other bishops.

    This version was translated from the Textus Receptus.

  • 1582, 1610: Douay–Rheims Bible (DR)—published under Roman Catholic auspices, using “a densely Latinate vocabulary, to the extent of being in places unreadable.” It was later revised by Richard Challoner (a Roman Cathloic bishop). The result is known as the Douay-Rheims Bible (Challoner Revision) (DRC).

  • 1611: King James Version (KJV or AV—Authorized Version)

    This version was translated from the Textus Receptus.

    1885: Revised King James Version (RKJV) or simply Revised Version (RV)—a revised version of the King James Bible

    1982: New King James Version (NKJV)—a revised version of the King James Bible

    This version was translated from the Textus Receptus.

    “Commissioned in 1975 by Thomas Nelson Publishers, 130 respected Bible scholars, church leaders, and lay Christians worked for 7 years to create a completely new, modern translation of Scripture, yet one that would retain the purity and stylistic beauty of the original King James. With unyielding faithfulness to the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts, the translation applies the most recent research in archaeology, linguistics, and textual studies.” —Thomas Nelson Publishers

  • 1890: Darby Bible (DARBY or DBY)—also known as The Holy Scriptures: A New Translation from the Original Languages

    This version was translated from the Textus Receptus.

    Formerly an Anglican priest and very well educated, John Nelson Darby was one of the leaders of a conservative, reformed, evangelical, sola scriptura, dispensational, pre-Trib, independent, non-denominational movement that departed from the state church of England (Anglicanism) in the 1800s. His English translation was used as the basis for various foreign language translations.

  • 1901: American Standard Version (ASV)

    “The American Standard Version, which was also known as The American Revision of 1901, is rooted in the work begun in 1870 to revise the Authorized Version/King James Bible of 1611. This revision project eventually produced the Revised Version (RV). An invitation was extended to American religious leaders for scholars to work on the RV project. In 1871, thirty scholars were chosen by Philip Schaff. The denominations represented on the American committee were the Baptist, Congregationalist, Dutch Reformed, Friends, Methodist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal, and Unitarian. These scholars began work in 1872.” —Wikipedia text, July 7, 2017

  • 1952: Revised Standard Version (RSV or ERV)

    The RSV is an authorized revision of the American Standard Version (ASV), published in 1901, which was a revision of the King James Version, published in 1611.

    This version is generally recognized as theologically liberal and is not recommended by Christian Answers.

    According to the publisher,

    “The Revised Standard Version Bible seeks to preserve all that is best in the English Bible as it has been known and used through the years. It is intended for use in public and private worship, not merely for reading and instruction. We have resisted the temptation to use phrases that are merely current usage, and have sought to put the message of the Bible in simple, enduring words that are worthy to stand in the great Tyndale-King James tradition. We are glad to say, with the King James translators: ‘Truly (good Christian Reader) we never thought from the beginning, that we should need to make a new Translation, nor yet to make of a bad one a good one… but to make a good one better’.”

  • 1971, 1995: New American Standard Bible (NASB)—an an original translation from the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts, based on the same principles of translation, and wording, as the American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901

    The New American Standard Bible is widely regarded as the most literally translated of 20th-century English Bible translations. This translation is published by the Lockman Foundation and is one of the most trusted for accuracy among conservative, Reformed evangelical scholars and pastors, “revealing what the original manuscripts actually say—not merely what the translator believes they mean.”

    According to the publisher,

    “While preserving the literal accuracy of the 1901 ASV, the NASB has sought to render grammar and terminology in contemporary English. Special attention has been given to the rendering of verb tenses to give the English reader a rendering as close as possible to the sense of the original Greek and Hebrew texts. In 1995, the text of the NASB was updated for greater understanding and smoother reading. …The NASB update continues the NASB’s tradition of literal translation of the original Greek and Hebrew without compromise. Changes in the text have been kept within the strict parameters set forth by the Lockman Foundation’s Fourfold Aim.”

    “The translators and consultants who have contributed to the NASB update are conservative Bible scholars who have doctorates in Biblical languages, theology, or other advanced degrees. They represent a variety of denominational backgrounds.”

    The Hebrew text used for this translation was the third edition of Rudolf Kittel’s Biblia Hebraica, as well as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia was consulted for the 1995 revision. For Greek, Eberhard Nestle’s Novum Testamentum Graece was used (23rd edition for the 1971 edition, and 26th for the 1995 revision).

  • 2001: English Standard Version (ESV)—published by Crossway Bibles (a division of Good News Publishers), Wheaton, Illinois

    This is an evangelical revision of the Revised Standard Version (RSV).

    After careful study of this version, Bible researcher Michael Marlowe (conservative and Reformed) concludes:

    “As modern versions go, the ESV should be counted as one of the best for use in teaching ministry. It is more literal than the NIV, and so it is largely free of the problems that come with the use of so-called “dynamic equivalence” versions; but it is not so severely literal that ordinary readers will struggle to understand it. Its English recalls the classic diction of the KJV, and so it has some literary power (this is not unimportant in a Bible version). Its handling of the Old Testament is agreeable to conservative principles of interpretation. As a revision of the RSV, it is much better than the NRSV in several ways.

    However, there are some weaknesses in it. We have noticed the bad influence of the NIV in several places. So, for close study, the ESV is less suitable than the NASB or NKJV. These latter versions, despite their difficulties and obscurities, continue to be the most useful for detailed and careful study.”

  • 1978, 2011 (revised): New International Version (NIV)

    “The New International Version (NIV) is a completely original translation of the Bible developed by more than one hundred scholars working from the best available Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts. The initial vision for the project was provided by a single individual—an engineer working with General Electric in Seattle by the name of Howard Long.”

  • 1995: God's Word Translation (GW)

    This was first published by World Publishing, then by Green Key Books, and later aquired by its current publisher Baker Books (Baker Publishing Group).

    This translation was produced by the God's Word to the Nations Bible Mission Society (Florida). Although many of its board members were and the translation team were members of the conservative Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod denomination (LCMS), the Society has no official ties to this specific or any other Christian denomination. According to the translation team, their objective was to create a “natural equivalent translation,” consciously combining scholarly fidelity with natural English. “The grammar is simplified; the style is informal; and sentences are shorter and less complicated than other versions.”

  • 1996-2018: New English Translation (NET Bible)—sponsored by the Biblical Studies Foundation and published by Biblical Studies Press (Garland, Texas)

    This new translation is closely connected with Dallas Theological Seminary professors and students. Concerning this translation’s extensive notes, the publishers say, “The translators’ notes make the original languages far more accessible, allowing you to look over the translator’s shoulder at the very process of translation.”

    See: Critique by Bible researcher Michael Marlowe (conservative and Reformed) (off-site)

  • 2004: Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)

  • 2011: International Standard Version (ISV)

  • 2011: Common English Bible (CEB)

  • 2011, 2014: Names of God Bible (NOG)

  • 2014: Modern English Version (MEV)

  • 2017: Christian Standard Bible (CSB)

Early Aramaic translations—the Targumim (Targums)

  • After the return from the Captivity, the Jews, no longer familiar with the old Hebrew, required that their Scriptures should be translated for them into the Chaldaic or Aramaic language and interpreted. These translations and paraphrases were at first oral, but they were afterwards reduced to writing, and thus targumim, i.e., “versions” or “translations,” have come down to us. Both of these targumim came from the Jewish school which then flourished at Babylon.

    The chief of these are…

    • The Onkelos Targum, i.e., the targum of Akelas = Aquila, a targum so called to give it greater popularity by comparing it with the Greek translation of Aquila mentioned below. This targum originated about the second century after Christ.

    • The targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel comes next to that of Onkelos in respect of age and value. It is more of a paraphrase on the Prophets, however, than a translation.

Early Syriac versions (a dialect of Aramaic)

See SYRIAC.

Early Greek versions

  • 280 B.C. through 200 or 150 B.C.: SEPTUAGINT—The Septuagint is oldest of these, and is sometimes refered to as the “LXX” (the 70).

    The origin of this, the most important of all the versions, is involved in much obscurity. It derives its name from the popular notion that 72 translators were employed on it by the direction of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, and that it was accomplished in 72 days, for the use of the Jews residing in that country. There is no historical warrant for this notion.

    It is, however, an established fact that this version was made at Alexandria; that it was begun about 280 B.C., and finished about 200 or 150 B.C.; that it was the work of a number of translators who differed greatly both in their knowledge of Hebrew and of Greek; and that from the earliest times it has borne the name of “The Septuagint”, i.e., The Seventy.

    This version, with all its defects, is of great interest because…

    • It preserves evidence for the text far more ancient than the oldest Hebrew manuscripts.

    • It shows the means by which the Greek Language was wedded to Hebrew thought.

    • It is the source of the great majority of quotations from the Old Testament by writers of the New Testament.

  • The Greek New Testament manuscripts fall into two divisions…

    • Uncials, written in Greek capitals, with no distinction at all between the different words, and very little even between the different lines

    • Cursives, in small Greek letters, and with divisions of words and lines.

    The change between the two kinds of Greek writing took place about the 10th century. Only 5 manuscripts of the New Testament approaching to completeness are more ancient than this dividing date.

    • 300s A.D.: SINAITIC MANUSCRIPT (Codex Sinaiticus) (the Bible in Greek)—see Sinaiticus Codex

    • 300s A.D.: VATICAN MANUSCRIPT—see Vaticanus Codex

    • 400s A.D. or earlier: EPHRAEM MANUSCRIPT—so called because it was written over the writings of Ephraem, a Syrian theological author, a practice very common in the days when writing materials were scarce and dear

      It is believed that it belongs to the 5th century, and perhaps a slightly earlier period of it than the manuscript A.

    • 400s A.D.: ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT—Though brought to this country by Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, as a present to Charles I, it is believed that it was written, not in that capital, but in Alexandria; whence its title. It is now dated in the 5th century A.D.

    • 400s A.D.: MANUSCRIPT OF BEZA (Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis), a bilingual manuscript, with a Greek text and a Latin version on facing pages. It is named so because it belonged to the reformer Theodore Beza (Théodore de Bèze or de Besze), who found it in the monastery/church of St. Irenaeus at Lyons, France, in 1562 A.D. He was a disciple of the Protestant Reformer John Calvin.

      This manuscript is preserved at the University of Cambridge and is available in digital form.

Early Latin versions

  • OLD LATIN—A Latin version of the Scriptures, called the “Old Latin,” which originated in North Africa, was in common use in the time of Tertullian (A.D. 150). Of this there appear to have been various copies or recensions made. That made in Italy, and called the Itala, was reckoned the most accurate. This translation of the Old Testament seems to have been made not from the original Hebrew, but from the Septuagint.

    This version became greatly corrupted by repeated transcription, and, to remedy the evil, Jerome (A.D. 329-420) was requested by Damasus, the bishop of Rome, to undertake a complete revision of it.

  • VULGATE—This version met with opposition, at first, but was at length, in the 7th century, recognized as the “Vulgate” version.

    It appeared in a printed from about A.D. 1455, the first book that ever issued from the press. The Council of Trent (1546) declared it “authentic.” It subsequently underwent various revisions, but that which was executed (1592) under the sanction of Pope Clement VIII was adopted as the basis of all subsequent editions. It is regarded as the sacred original in the Roman Catholic Church. All modern European versions have been more or less influenced by the Vulgate.

    This version reads ipsa instead of ipse in Genesis 3:15, “She shall bruise thy head.”

Other ancient versions

There are several other ancient versions which are of importance to Biblical critics, but which we need not mention particularly, such as the…

  • 300s A.D.: Ethiopic—from the Septuagint
  • 300s A.D. : 2 Egyptian versions—the Memphitic, circulated in Lower Egypt, and the Thebaic, designed for Upper Egypt, both translated from the Greek
  • 300s A.D.: Gothic, translated into the German language, but with the Greek alphabet, by Ulphilas (died 388 A.D.), of which only fragments of the Old Testament remain
  • about 400 A.D.: Armenian
  • 800s A.D.: Slavonic—for ancient Moravia
  • Arabic
  • Persian
  • Anglo-Saxon

ALSO SEE

Article Version: May 17, 2019