circumcision in the Bible
Hebrew: מוּלָה —transliteration: mulah (appears only in Exodus 4:26) —meaning: circumcision
Greek: περιτομή —transliteration: peritomé(appears 36 times in the New Testament) —meaning: circumcision, cutting around, removal of the male foreskin
This rite, practiced before, as some think, by diverse peoples, was appointed by God to be the special badge of his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to Him. It was established as a national ordinance (Genesis 17:10-11).
In compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who was thirteen years old (17:24-27). Slaves, whether home-born or purchased, were circumcised (17:12-13); and all foreigners must have their males circumcised before they could enjoy the privileges of Jewish citizenship (Exodus 12:48).
During the journey through the wilderness, the practice of circumcision fell into disuse, but was resumed by the command of Joshua before they entered the Promised Land (Joshua 5:2-9). It was observed always afterwards among the tribes of Israel, although it is not expressly mentioned from the time of the settlement in Canaan till the time of Christ, about 1,450 years.
See: Is circumcision a requirement for salvation for Christian males? Answer
As a rite of the church, it ceased when the New Testament times began (Galatians 6:15; Col. 3:11). Some Jewish Christians sought to impose it, however, on the Gentile converts; but this the apostles resolutely resisted (Acts 15:1; Galatians 6:12). Our Lord was circumcised, for it “became him to fulfil all righteousness,” as of the seed of Abraham, according to the flesh; and Paul “took and circumcised” Timothy (Acts 16:3), to avoid giving offense to the Jews. It would render Timothy’s labors more acceptable to the Jews. But Paul would by no means consent to the demand that Titus should be circumcised (Galatians 2:3-5). The great point for which he contended was the free admission of uncircumcised Gentiles into the church. He contended successfully in behalf of Titus, even in Jerusalem.
See: What is so NEW about the New Testament? Answer
In the Old Testament, a spiritual idea is attached to circumcision. It was the symbol of purity (Isaiah 52:1). We read of uncircumcised lips (Exodus 6:12, 30), ears (Jeremiah 6:10), hearts (Leviticus 26:41). The fruit of a tree that is unclean is spoken of as uncircumcised (Leviticus 19:23).
But the promises made to Abraham included the promise of redemption (Galatians 3:14), a promise which has come upon us. The covenant with Abraham was a dispensation or a specific form of the covenant of grace, and circumcision was a sign and seal of that covenant. It had a spiritual meaning. It signified purification of the heart, inward circumcision effected by the Spirit (Deuteronomy 10:16; 30:6; Ezek. 44:7; Acts 7:51; Romans 2:28; Col. 2:11).
Circumcision as a symbol shadowing forth sanctification by the Holy Spirit has now given way to the symbol of baptism. But the truth embodied in both ordinances is ever the same, the removal of sin, the sanctifying effects of grace in the heart.
Under the Jewish dispensation, church and state were identical. No one could be a member of the one without also being a member of the other. Circumcision was a sign and seal of membership in both. Every circumcised person bore thereby evidence that he was one of the chosen people, a member of the church of God as it then existed, and consequently also a member of the Jewish commonwealth.