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Who or what is a…
son of God
This term is used in various ways in the Bible.
Jesus Christ, The Son of God
“The Son of God” occurs 41 times in the New Testament (NASB) as the distinctive title of our Savior. He does not bear this title because of His miraculous birth, nor of His incarnation, His resurrection, or exaltation to the Father’s right hand. This is a title of nature and not of office. The Sonship of Christ denotes His equality with the Father. To call Christ The Son of God is to assert His true and proper divinity.
The 2nd Person of the Trinity, because of His eternal relation to the 1st Person, is The Son of God. His divine nature is The Son of God, while His human nature is the Son of David (or Son of Man) (Romans 1:3-4.
Verses such as Galatians 4:4; John 1:1-14; 5:18-25 and 10:30-38 prove that Christ was The Son of God BEFORE His incarnation, and that His claim to this title is a claim of equality with God.
See: Trinity | Godhead | Virgin Birth | About Jesus Christ
Son of God—singular
In the singular, “son of God” always refers to the 2nd Person of the Trinity, with the single exception of Luke 3:38, where it is used of the Adam, because he was directly created by God, not the offspring of man and woman. So, Adam’s father is God; therefore Adam is a son of God.
the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. —Luke 3:38 NKJV
And the angel answered and said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God. —Luke 1:35 NKJV
And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us an understanding, that we may know Him who is true; and we are in Him who is true, in His Son . This is the true God and eternal life. —1 John 5:20 NKJV
And the unclean spirits, whenever they saw Him, fell down before Him and cried out, saying, “You are the Son of God.” —Mark 3:11 NKJV
Sons of God —plural
With the exception of of Adam, when used with reference to created beings, whether men or angels, this term is always in the plural (“sons of God”).
For example, in the book of Job, this name is applied to angels.
Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them. —Job 1:6 KJV
…all the sons of God shouted for joy… —Job 38:7 KJV
Fallen angels (demons who possessed certain men)…
…the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful [or “good”]; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. …The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown. —Genesis 6:2, 4 NASB
Hosea uses the phrase “sons of the living God” to designate the gracious relation in which men stand to God.
Yet the number of the sons of Israel
Will be like the sand of the sea,
Which cannot be measured or numbered;
And in the place
Where it is said to them,
“You are not My people,”
It will be said to them,
“You are the sons of the living God.” —Hosea 1:10 NASB
In the New Testament this phrase frequently denotes the relation into which we are brought to God by adoption.
so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons. Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” —Galatians 4:5-6 NASB
“…prove yourselves to be blameless and innocent, children of God above reproach in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you appear as lights in the world…” —Philippians 2:15 NASB
“For all who are being led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God.” —Romans 8:14 NASB
“And I will be a father to you,
And you shall be sons and daughters to Me,”
says the Lord Almighty. —2 Corinthians 6:18 NASB
“See how great a love the Father has bestowed on us, that we would be called children of God; and such we are. For this reason the world does not know us, because it did not know Him. Beloved, now we are children of God, and it has not appeared as yet what we will be. We know that when He appears, we will be like Him, because we will see Him just as He is.” —1 John 3:1-2 NASB
“For the anxious longing of the creation waits eagerly for the revealing of the sons of God.” —Romans 8:19 NASB
Article Version: October 26, 2019