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Hebrew: נָבִיא —transliteration: nabi, from a root meaning “to bubble forth, as from a fountain,” hence “to utter,” a spokesman, speaker, or prophet (compare Psalm 45:1)
Nabi is is the first and the most generally used for a prophet.
In the time of Samuel another word, רֹאֶה (transliteration: ro'eh, meaning a “seer,” began to be used (1 Samuel 9:9). It occurs 7 times in reference to Samuel.
Afterwards another word, חֹזֶה (transliteration: hozeh), “a seer” (2 Samuel 24:11), was employed.
In 1 Ch. 29:29 all these three words are used: “Samuel the seer (ro'eh), Nathan the prophet (nabi'), Gad the seer” (hozeh).
In Joshua 13:22 Balaam is called a קָסַם (transliterations: kosem or qasam) meaning a “diviner” or soothsayer, one who practices divination. This word is used only of a false prophet.
A true prophet proclaimed the message given to him, as the “seer” beheld the vision of God. (See Numbers 12:6, 8.) Thus a prophet was a spokesman for God; he spake in God’s name and by his authority (Exodus 7:1). He is the mouth by which God speaks to men (Jeremiah 1:9; Isaiah 51:16), and hence what the prophet says is not of man but of God (2 Peter 1:20-21; compare Hebrews 3:7; Acts 4:25; 28:25).
Prophets were the immediate organs of God for the communication of his mind and will to men (Deuteronomy 18:18-19). The whole Word of God may in this general sense be spoken of as prophetic, inasmuch as it was written by men who received the revelation they communicated from God, no matter what its nature might be. The foretelling of future events was not a necessary but only an incidental part of the prophetic office. The great task assigned to the prophets whom God raised up among the people was “to correct moral and religious abuses, to proclaim the great moral and religious truths which are connected with the character of God, and which lie at the foundation of his government.”
Any one being a spokesman for God to man might thus be called a prophet. Thus Enoch, Abraham, and the patriarchs, as bearers of God’s message (Genesis 20:7; Exodus 7:1; Psalm 105:15), as also Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15; 34:10; Hos. 12:13), are ranked among the prophets.
The 70 elders of Israel (Numbers 11:16-29), “when the spirit rested upon them, prophesied.” Asaph and Jeduthun “prophesied with a harp” (1 Chronicles 25:3). Miriam and Deborah were prophetesses (Exodus 15:20; Judges 4:4). The title thus has a general application to all who have messages from God to men.
But while the prophetic gift was thus exercised from the beginning, the prophetical order as such began with Samuel—colleges, “schools of the prophets”—were instituted for the training of prophets, who were constituted, a distinct order (1 Samuel 19:18-24; 2 Kings 2:3, 15; 4:38), which continued to the close of the Old Testament. Such “schools” were established at Ramah, Bethel, Gilgal, Gibeah, and Jericho.
The “sons” or “disciples” of the prophets were young men (2 Kings 5:22; 9:1, 4) who lived together at these different “schools” (4:38-41). These young men were taught not only the rudiments of secular knowledge, but they were brought up to exercise the office of prophet, “to preach pure morality and the heart-felt worship of Jehovah, and to act along and co-ordinately with the priesthood and monarchy in guiding the state aright and checking all attempts at illegality and tyranny.”
Prophets of Old Testament Scripture
Of the major Old Testament prophets there are 16 whose prophecies form part of the inspired canon.
These are divided into 4 groups:
Prophets of the northern Kingdom of Israel— • Hosea • Amos • Joel • Jonah
Prophets of the Kingdom of Judah— • Isaiah • Jeremiah • Obadiah • Micah • Nahum • Habakkuk • Zephaniah
Prophets of the Captivity period— • Ezekiel • Daniel
Prophets of the Restoration period— • Haggai • Zechariah • Malachi
In New Testament times, the prophetical office was continued. Our Lord is frequently spoken of as a prophet (Luke 13:33; 24:19). He was and is the great Prophet of the Church.
There was also in the Early Church a distinct order of prophets (1 Corinthians 12:28; Ephesians 2:20; 3:5), who made new revelations from God. They differed from the “teacher,” whose office it was to impart truths already revealed.
Named Biblical prophets
- Amos / Book of Amos
- Daniel / Book of Daniel
- Enoch (Jude 1:14-15)
- Ezekiel / Book of Ezekiel
- Ezra / Book of Ezra
- Habakkuk / Prophecies of Habakkuk
- Haggai / Book of Haggai
- Hosea (Hoshea) / Prophecies of Hosea
- Isaiah / Book of Isaiah
- Jeremiah / Book of Jeremiah
- Jesus Christ
- Joel / Book of Joel
- John / Book of Revelation
- John the Baptist
- Jonah / Book of Jonah
- Malachi / Prophecies of Malachi
- Micah / Book of Micah
- Nahum / Book of Nahum
- Nehemiah / Book of Nehemiah
- Obadiah / Book of Obadiah
- Samuel / Books of Samuel / Books of Kings
- Simeon (Luke 2:29-35)
- Zechariah / Book of Zechariah
- Zephaniah / Book of Zephaniah
- see: prophetess
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Article Version: October 26, 2018